An underground sewer system replaced open sewers in 1865. Although Old Aberdeen has a separate history and still holds its ancient charter, it is no longer officially independent.
It is an integral part of the city, as is Woodside and the Royal Burgh of Torry to the south of the River Dee.
In 2015, Mercer named Aberdeen the 57th most liveable city in the world, as well as the fourth most liveable city in Britain.
The city began as two separate burghs: Old Aberdeen at the mouth of the river Don; and New Aberdeen, a fishing and trading settlement, where the Denburn waterway entered the river Dee estuary.
The city was burned by Edward III of England in 1336, but was rebuilt and extended.
The city was strongly fortified to prevent attacks by neighbouring lords, but the gates were removed by 1770.
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The expensive infrastructure works led to the city becoming bankrupt in 1817 during the Post-Napoleonic depression, an economic downturn immediately after the Napoleonic Wars; but the city's prosperity later recovered.
when prehistoric villages lay around the mouths of the rivers Dee and Don.
The city has a long, sandy coastline and a marine climate, the latter resulting in chilly summers and mild winters.
The earliest charter was granted by William the Lion in 1179 and confirmed the corporate rights granted by David I.
In 1319, the Great Charter of Robert the Bruce transformed Aberdeen into a property-owning and financially independent community.
Granted with it was the nearby Forest of Stocket, whose income formed the basis for the city's Common Good Fund which still benefits Aberdonians.