The urine is stored in the bladder until it leaves the body through the urethra.Cancer that is in the lining of the bladder is called superficial bladder cancer.The bladder is a hollow organ in the lower part of the abdomen.It is shaped like a small balloon and has a muscular wall that allows it to get larger or smaller to store urine made by the kidneys.There are two kidneys, one on each side of the backbone, above the waist.Tiny tubules in the kidneys filter and clean the blood. The urine passes from each kidney through a long tube called a ureter into the bladder.Urine is made in the renal tubules and collects in the renal pelvis of each kidney.The urine flows from the kidneys through the ureters to the bladder.
Chemotherapy is a cancer treatment that uses drugs to stop the growth of cancer cells, either by killing the cells or by stopping them from dividing.
Cancer that has spread through the lining of the bladder and invades the muscle wall of the bladder or has spread to nearby organs and lymph nodes is called invasive bladder cancer.
See the following PDQ summaries for more information: Anything that increases your chance of getting a disease is called a risk factor.
For bladder cancer, regional chemotherapy may be intravesical (put into the bladder through a tube inserted into the urethra).
The way the chemotherapy is given depends on the type and stage of the cancer being treated.
Some treatments are standard (the currently used treatment), and some are being tested in clinical trials.