refers to layers of sediment, debris, rock, and other materials that form or accumulate as the result of natural processes, human activity, or both.
An individual layer is called a stratum; multiple layers are called strata.
Stratigraphy Inspired by geology, stratigraphy uses the principle of the superposition of strata which suggests that, in a succession of undisturbed SOILS, the upper horizons are newer than the lower ones.
Generally, each stratum is isolated in a separate chronological unit that incorporates artifacts.
Without additional information, however, we cannot assign dates or date ranges to the different episodes of deposition.
Stratigraphic dating remains very reliable when it comes to dating objects or events in undisturbed stratigraphic levels.
For example, the oldest human remains known to date in Canada, found at Gore Creek, have been dated using soil stratification.
On the other hand, absolute dating includes all methods that provide figures about the real estimated age of archaeological objects or occupations.
These methods usually analyze physicochemical transformation phenomena whose rate are known or can be estimated relatively well.
For those researchers working in the field of human history, the chronology of events remains a major element of reflection.