Data from recordings which other speakers made for me have in every case been checked with these four people. Historical and comparative remarks are confined to the outline in the Intro duction and to occasional footnotes. In fact, however, these poems served to fire the imaginations of many more young people, who found their own native Macedonian language in them. ^^UASll JL 4-*-w* L \J L TV/To f-tf\j A /-\ M i a 'questions'. Termino logy in many fields is still not settled, and the discussions about new words and usages are lively and productive. further analyzed into a suffix -ji- denoting the particular participial form and another (-e) denoting plurality.The description is not complete, for it does not treat in detail the adverbs, conjunctions, and particles. In 1941, western Macedonia was taken from, Yugoslavia and annexed by Bulgaria^, The population did not find that the change brought any improvement in their position, and they believed that they had simply exchanged one foreign official language for another. As has been stated, Macedonian is very closely related to both Serbo-Croatian and Bulgarian. With the adjective nojw 'full', there may be the preposition co 'with', or nothing: ca Jiara no^na (co) Jiyfe 'the room full of people'. 69 lationships and to a list illustrating all the possible types.The description is thus to some degree also a prescriptive, normative grammar, for it ignores usages arbitrarily termed as not in accord ance with the standard. The Bulgarian-Serbian frontier was changed many times between 19, but the local population, particularly in the west, considered both Serbs and Bulgarians as foreign oppressors, and continued to demand the right to use their own language not only in private, but in public life. Among the native Slavic verbs there are only: Benepa 'have supper', npauia 'ask', ueji Hea 'greet, kiss' and Hcnoseua 'confess', which func tion as both terminative and interminative, and nmiie 'write' is inter minative in the present (equivalent to nmuy Ba), but terminative in the past (equivalent to Hiue).
Poetry was excluded because it admits a plethora of archaisms and dialectisms and abounds in variant forms not found in prose. 47 51 52 66 66 68 68 69 72 73 73 74 XIV page Imperfect 1-participle (§11) ................ e (§12) ......••.••••.••••• 75 n/t partidple (§13) ..... After the award of these regions to Greece, many Slavs emigrated to Pirin Mace donia or other parts of Bulgaria. There are many new combinations which do not admit stress on the preposition at all: 6pan no_6pa H 'wave after wave', Jia K no-jra K 'arch after arch'. Thus the form Ha Ha Jieryeajie 'they used to come out in great num bers' consists of a root (-Jier-), two prefixes (Ha-MS-), a derivational suffix (-VB-), the stem-vowel (-a-), and the ending (-.ne), 1 Ha-cjiym* H-y-ea 'ihej regularly eavesdrops' has a root (-cjiyui-), one prefix, three stem-suffixes (the last of which is the stem-vowel) and a zero ending, Asoect Morphology 6.10 The categories of terminative and interminative aspect are inherent in the verb itself.
Journalistic and most expository prose was not included because the writers too often are strongly under the influence of their school Serbo-Croatian, and they have not taken the time to become sufficiently acquainted with the daily language of the people and with the details of the newly established norms of the literary language. Even more changes took place in the ethnic composition of Aegean Macedonia after 1918, for many Anatolian Greeks were settled there. Macedonan verbs appear in pairs, since each verb may be required in situations demanding one or the other aspect.
As arbiter for the quality of any given work, and for the ,,correctness" of any form or construction, I have relied on the judgment of the members of the Seminar of South Slavic Languages at the Macedonian University in Skopje. Bulgarian schools were supended, and those Macedonians who did not emigrate were subjected to intensive hellenization. Only a few exceptional verbs may express both aspects.
(Kazan', 1918), a general description and history of Macedonian dialects; Ma Kedonc Kue Kodu Ku XV 11 u XVIII ee Koe (Sofia, 1933), an analysis of older written materials; and Ilojtoz u ezo 6o Jtzapc Koe nacejieuue (Sofia, 1929), which contains a description of a northwest ern dialect. Mafecki studied and published materials from the southeasternmost Macedonian dialects, from the villages of Suho and Visoka, northeast of Salonika. 90 ^Distanced" Forms (§24) ............•....••• 91 n/t participle (§25) ................ There was still another factor, however; the effort of the Serbs to introduce Serbian books into the Macedonian schools. 5.3 There are two categories which characterize the relation of the participants to the process: voice and mood.
None of these works is directly concerned with the dialects on which the Mace donian literary language is based, although Seli§c"ev does touch on them from time to time. The Macedonians were thus struggling against the Turks and the Greeks for religious and political freedom, and with these plus the Bulgarians and the Serbs for cultural independence. In body (stature) he will be a fir, in hardness a wild-cherry tree. Voice denotes 1 The conventional terms perfective and imperfective are not used in this work in order to avoid the confusion which easily arises when they are juxtaposed with the term imperfect.
The examples have all been checked by Macedonians, and are thus guaranteed to be standard. Beside the very old feature mentioned above (maintenance of a difference between the reflexes of the ,,jers"), there are many traits in common. (However -He is not exclusively an indication of terminativeness, and there are some new verbs with this suffix which are intermi native, notably the journalist's favorite ja KHe 'strengthen' ».